The research, published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, aimed to assess the accuracy and feasibility of using the PainChek® Infant tool for assessment of procedural, such as that associated with immunisation.

The researchers evaluated infants pain before, during, and after immunisation, and evaluated the accuracy and precision of PainChek® Infant at different cut-off scores.

They also used the “Guideline for Selecting Outcome Measurement Instruments”1 list of feasibility aspects to evaluate potential feasibility and usability in clinical practice. Assessor feedback on feasibility and usability, combined with comparison of PainChek® Infant with other available pain assessment tools for infants used for procedural pain were used for this evaluation.

The study found that both PainChek® Infant Standard and Adaptive modes were highly accurate, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.964 and 0.966, respectively. At a cut-off score of ≥2, the accuracy and precision were 0.908 and 0.912 for Standard mode and 0.912 and 0.897 for Adaptive mode.

PainChek® Infant also performed well in terms of the COSMIN feasibility aspects, including interpretability, ease of administration, completion time, and clinician comprehensibility.

The study is available at the following link:


1Cosmin. (2016) Guideline for selecting outcome measurement instruments for outcomes included in a Core Outcome Set. Available at:

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